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When used in conjunction with a screw fastener such as a bolt and nut, the washer serves either to keep the screw from loosening or to distribute the load from the nut or bolt head over a larger area. They can also be used to make a connection to a hole that has been enlarged by rust or wear.

Penny / repair / flat washers are the most common type of washer with two flat surfaces and a larger outer diameter proportional to the central hole, meaning it can distribute loads more widely. They have a larger outside diameter than standard washers.

Square plate washers are typically used when fastening a bolt with a square head so that the surface area is equal, but they are also great alternatives to regular circular washers as they create a larger surface area which can provide better resistance to tightening and loosening when used with regular bolts. Square Washers / construction square plate washers should be used instead of round washer for timber building and concrete floor applications; they are used with all fasteners for larger load distribution and bolting through a wall or timber.

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